Chrysanthemum morifolium. Jú huā  Mulberry leafed chrysanthemum   Family: Asteraceae   
PART USED: White Flowers- harvested late Autumn or early Wind when the flowers are at their height.
Nature: Cool  
    FLAVOR: Bitter, sweet, pleasant    CHANNEL: Lung, Liver
GROUP: Exterior Clearing- Cooling
1. Disperse Wind Heat.[5] Antipyretic.[1]
2. Clear Liver Fire.[6] Clear eyes.[5,6] Sharpen vision. Carminative.[1] Calm Liver and extinguishes Wind.[6] Nourishes the Liver.[5]
3. Clear Heat and Toxic materials.[5] Clear away Heat. Detoxifying agent.[1]
1. Common Cold of Wind Heat type.[5] Headache and dizziness associated with Wind caused fevers.[1,7] The early superficial stage of epidemic febrile disease. Red eyes.[5]
2. Liver Fire affecting eyes, with redness, swelling and pain of the eye. Tinnitus, conjunctivitis or trachoma.[1] Wind Heat in the Liver channel manifested in red, painful, dry eyes or excessive tearing.[6] Headache and dizziness due to hyperactivity of Liver Yang. Dizziness, headache, and deafness due to ascendant Liver Yang.[6]
3. Hyperactivity of Liver Yang:[5] Headache, dizziness, feeling of fullness in the head. Hypertension.
4. Kidney and Liver Yin deficient: Chronic hepatitis, opthalmic nerve infection, dizzy blurred vision.[5] Yin deficiency of the Kidneys and Liver with spots in front of the eyes, blurry vision or dizziness.[6]
5. Carbuncle due to intensive Heat, usually used with Red Chrysanthemum Flowers.  Boils and abscesses.[1]
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Use with caution in clients with Qi deficiency who have poor appetites and/or diarrhea.[6]
COMPARISONS: White, yellow and Wild chrysanthemum
Yellow Huang ju: is stronger for scattering Heat and for red eyes: Conjunctivitis.[4] Has a greating Wind Heat dispersing capacity- used for red eyes and headache.[6] The best quality of yellow chrysanthemum comes from the city of Hangzhou and is called Hang ju hua.[6]
White Bai ju:  is used to nourish Liver Yin and clarify eyesight.[4] Is superior to other varieties in nourishing the Liver and clearing the eyes.[6]
Chrysanthemum indicum Ye ju hua (Wild) is used to clear Heat and treat carbuncles, abscesses and ulcers.[5]
PREPARATIONS:  Decoction.  Flowers 5-10 g.[1] 10-30 g  For severe Heat cases.[2,3] Good quality has a good shape, is bright in color, and is fragrant.[6]
10-15 g.[4] 3-18 g.[5] 5-15 g.[6]

HABITAT: Mostly cultivated.
DESCRIPTION: Perennial herb. Whole plant covered densely by white downy hairs. Stem: erect, slightly purplish-red, upper section multibranching. Leaves: alternate, ovate-rounded to lanceolate, apexes obtuse, bases cuneate, pinnately lobed, margins serrated, undersides covered by soft white hairs. Flowers in autumn, white, yellow, pink flowers appearing in capitulum inflorescences. Achene: 4 angled, no pappus.
Inner Path can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


Antimutagenic activity of flavonoids from Chrysanthemum morifolium.
Miyazawa M, Hisama M.
A methanol extract from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 against the mutagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide). The methanol extract was re-extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a suppressive effect. Suppressive compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and identified as the flavonoids acacetin (1), apigenin (2), luteolin (3), and quercetin (4) by EI-MS, IR, and (1)H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 suppressed the furylfuramide-induced SOS response in the umu test. Compounds 1-4 suppressed 60.2, 75.7, 90.0, and 66.6% of the SOS-inducing activity at a concentration of 0.70 micromol/ml. The ID50 (50% inhibitory dose) values of 1-4 were 0.62, 0.55, 0.44, and 0.59 micromol/ml. These compounds had the suppressive effects on umu gene expression of the SOS response against other mutagens, 4-nitroquinolin 1-oxide (4NQO) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), which do not require liver-metabolizing enzymes. These compounds also showed the suppression of SOS-inducing activity against the other mutagens aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which require liver-metabolizing enzymes, and UV irradiation. In addition to the antimutagenic activities of these compounds against furylfuramide, Trp-P-1 and activated Trp-P-1 were also assayed by the Ames test using S. typhimurium TA100.
PMID: 14586095 DOI: 10.1271/bbb.67.2091  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Oct;67(10):2091-9.

Chrysanthemum morifolium extract improves hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats by reduction of blood pressure and inhibition of myocardial hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha expression.
Gao T, Zhu ZY, Zhou X, Xie ML.
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (Asteraceae) extract (CME) possesses a vasodilator effect in vitro. However, the use of polyphenol-rich CME in the treatment of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been reported.
We investigated the effect of polyphenol-rich CME on hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats and its possible mechanism of action.
The Sprague-Dawley rat model with cardiac hypertrophy was induced by renovascular hypertension. The blood pressure, cardiac weight index, free fatty acids (FFA) in serum and myocardium, and protein expressions of myocardial hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK-4) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) were measured after treating hypertensive rats with polyphenol-rich CME of anthodia 75-150 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks. A myocardial histological examination was also conducted.
After CME treatment, the blood pressure, cardiac weight and cardiac weight index decreased by 5.7-9.6%, 9.2-18.4% and 10.9-20.1%, respectively, and the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area also decreased by 8.3-30.4%. The CME treatment simultaneously decreased the FFA in serum and myocardium and protein expressions of myocardial HIF-1α and GLUT-4, and increased the protein expressions of myocardial PPARα, CPT-1a and PDK-4, especially in the CME 150 mg/kg group (p < 0.05 or p <  0.01).
Polyphenol-rich CME may alleviate hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Its mechanisms may be related to the reduction of blood pressure and amelioration of the myocardial energy metabolism. The latter may be attributed to the inhibition of HIF-1α expression and subsequent modulation of PPARα-mediated CPT-1a, PDK-4 and GLUT-4 expressions.
PMID: 27268080 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2016.1190764  Pharm Biol. 2016 Dec;54(12):2895-2900. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Antioxidant action of a Chrysanthemum morifolium extract protects rat brain against ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Lin GH1, Lin L, Liang HW, Ma X, Wang JY, Wu LP, Jiang HD, Bruce IC, Xia Q.
The present study evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of the total flavones extracted from Chrysanthemum morifolium (TFCM) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. An animal model of cerebral ischemia was established by occluding the right middle cerebral artery for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 22 hours. The neurobehavioral scores, infarct area, and hemispheric edema were evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in brain were also measured. The results showed that pretreatment with TFCM significantly decreased the neurological deficit scores, percentage of infarction, and brain edema and attenuated the decrease in SOD activity, the elevation of MDA content, and the generation of ROS. In isolated brain mitochondria, Ca(2+)-induced swelling was attenuated by pretreatment with TFCM, and this effect was antagonized by atractyloside. These results showed that pretreatment with TFCM provides significant protection against cerebral I/R injury in rats by, at least in part, its antioxidant action and consequent inhibition of mitochondrial swelling.
PMID: 20412018 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1184 J Med Food. 2010 Apr;13(2):306-11. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1184.