Peumus boldus. P. boldo   Boldo   Family: Monimiaceae         
Peumus boldus, the only species in the genus Peumus, is commonly known as Boldo (from the Mapudungun name folo). This tree of the family Monimiaceae is natively endemic to the central region of Chile, occurring from 33° to 40° Southern latitude. Boldo has also been introduced to Europe and North Africa, though it is not often seen outside botanical gardens.          
PART USED: Leaves, bark for extraction of alkaloids
TASTE: Bitter, aromatic ODOR: Camphoraceous, lemony
GROUP: Hepatics and Cholagogues
1 . Cholagogue.[1] Liver stimulant.[1,3]
2 . Urinary antiseptic and demulcent.[1,2] Diuretic.[1,3]
3 . Sedative.[1]
1. Hepatic insufficiency. Liver or gall bladder pain.[1,2] Gallstones.[1,2,3]
2. Urinary tract infections. Cystitis.[1,2,3] Kidney stones.
3. Dyspepsia
4. Rheumatic conditions.[1,2]
5. Aid to slimming.[3]
SPECIFIC INDICATIONS: Cholelithiasis with pain.[1]
- Gall stones or hepatic disease- with Barberry, Fringe-tree bark.
NOTE -Low dosage.
Dried Leaves    60-200 mg.[1]
Infusion[1]   60-200 mg in 0.12-4 ml  water.
Fluid Extract  1:1 in 45% alcohol 0.1-0.3 ml.[1,2] 0.5-2 ml.[3]
Fluid Extract  1:2 in 60% alcohol.[4]
Tincture  1:10 in 60% alcohol 0.5-2 ml.[1,2]

DESCRIPTION: An evergreen tree indigenous to Chile. Leaves oval, up to about 7 cm long, 3 cm broad, rather thick and brittle with an entire, slightly revolut margin and a short stalk. The upper surface is papillose, both surfaces slightly pubescent.
Inner Path can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alkaloids of the isoquinoline type, up to 0.7%, including boldine, isocarydine, N-methyllaurotetanine, norisocorydine.[1]
Isoboldine, laurolitsine, reticuline and others.[2]
Volatile oil 2%,[4] containing mainly p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, ascaridole and linalool.[2]
Flavonoid glycosides based on isorhamnetin.[3]
Bitter alkaloid- boldine. Glycoside- boldoglucin 0.3%.[4] Flavonoids. Volatile oil 2% containing ascaridol. Eucalyptol. Cymol.


Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.
Fernández J, Lagos P, Rivera P, Zamorano-Ponce E.
Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector.
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 19145575 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2746 Phytother Res. 2009 Jul;23(7):1024-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2746.

Low doses of ethanolic extract of Boldo (Peumus boldus) can ameliorate toxicity generated by cisplatin in normal liver cells of mice in vivo and in WRL-68 cells in vitro, but not in cancer cells in vivo or in vitro.
Mondal J, Bishayee K, Panigrahi AK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.
Use of cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug, is restricted because it generates strong hepatotoxicity by accumulating in liver. Therefore its anticancer potential can only be fully exploited if its own toxicity is considerably reduced. Towards this goal, ethanolic extract of the plant, Boldo (Peumus boldus), known for its antihepatotoxic effects, was used simultaneously with cisplatin, to test its ability to reduce cisplatin's cytotoxicity without affecting its anticancer potential.
The cytotoxicity of Boldo extract (BE) and cisplatin, administered alone and in combination, was determined in three cancer cell lines (A549, HeLa, and HepG2) and in normal liver cells (WRL-68). Drug-DNA interaction, DNA damage, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ??) were also studied. Hepatotoxicity and antioxidant activity levels were determined by alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione assays in mice. The cytotoxicity of related proteins was tested by Western blotting.
Co-administration of BE and cisplatin increased viability of normal cells, but had no effect on the viability of cancer cells. Boldo protected liver from damage and normalized different antioxidant enzyme levels in vivo and also reduced ROS and re-polarized MMP in vitro. Bax and cytochrome c translocation was reduced with caspase 3 down-regulation. Further, a drug-DNA interaction study revealed that BE reduced cisplatin's DNA-binding capacity, resulting in a reduction in DNA damage.
Results indicated that a low dose of BE could be used beneficially in combination with cisplatin to reduce its toxicity without hampering cisplatin's anticancer effect. These findings signify a potential future use of BE in cancer therapy.
PMID: 25292342 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60045-5 J Integr Med. 2014 Sep;12(5):425-38. doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60045-5.

Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.
Lanhers MC, Joyeux M, Soulimani R, Fleurentin J, Sayag M, Mortier F, Younos C, Pelt JM.
Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties.
PMID: 1891491 DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-960043  Planta Med. 1991 Apr;57(2):110-5.