sū yè Dry
leaf with tender branch FLAVOR: Pungent, acrid, aromatic
CHANNEL: Lung, Spleen FUNCTIONS GROUP: Exterior Clearing- Warming
1. Clears the exterior and disperses Cold.
Diaphoretic, clearing Heat from the body.
2. Promotes the movement of Qi and expands the chest.Open inhibited Lung Energy to relieve cough. Corrects energy balance.
Relieves asthma. Disperse mucus.
3. Harmonize middle Jiao.Promote flow of Qi. Harmonise Stomach.
Strenghens gastric secretions, regulate Stomach energy.
5. Relieve fish and crab poisoning.
6. Quiets restless fetus, detoxifies. INDICATIONS
1. Wind cold. Cough of Wind Cold type with thin sputum and feeling of oppression
in the chest; stuffy nose and sneezing due to Wind Cold. As a preventive for epidemic
influenza, colds, and malaria. Common
cold, cough. Congestion in chest.
2. Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite and morning sickness
due to stagnation of Spleen/Stomach energy.
Vomiting, abdominal distention and flatulence.
Abdominal swelling, swelling of chest, nausea, vomiting. Vomiting due to attack
of external Wind Cold.
3. Seafood- Fish and crab poisoning.[1,6]Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea after intake of fish and crab.
Leaves cooked with fish and crab may prevent the poisoning or allergy.
4. Restless fetus.[1,6] CONTRAINDICATIONS: Exterior deficiency with pronounced sweating,
and for patterns of Damp Heat. PATENT COMBINATIONS - Emotional disorders with retention of Phlegm: Disperses
stagnant Qi, moves the Qi and dissipates lumps, direction rebellious Qi downwards,
transforms Phlegm Pinellia
& Magnolia- Ban xia hou pi tang - Exterior Wind Cold or Wind Cold Dampness
with stagnation of Dampness, or food stagnation in the middle Heater:
Releases Exterior Wind-Cold, activates the Spleen to transform Dampness and Phlegm,
regulates the Qi, harmonizes the Middle Jiao Agastache
Combination- Huo xiang zheng qi wan. - Exterior Wind Cold in patients with Lung and Spleen Qi deficiency with
Phlegm Damp retention:Releases
exterior Wind Cold, disperses stagnant Qi and harmonises the Middle Jiao, transforms
Phlegm, tonifies Qi Ginseng
& Perilla- Shen su yin. -
Febrile illness due to exterior Wind Heat or Heat and Toxicity: Clear
Heat and resolves Toxicity, releases exterior Wind-HeatIsatis
& Forsythia- Xiao er tui re chong ji.
Dry leaf or with tender branch 4-10 g.[2,3]
6-9 g. 3-9 g.
Whole plant 9-15 g. Should not be
cooked for prolonged periods. Good
quality is large, purple, and fragrant. 紫苏子
Zǐ sū zǐPerilla
seed/fruit-It is harvested in autumn, dried in sunlight.
Pungent. CHANNEL: Lung, Large Intestine FUNCTIONS GROUP:
Antitussive and Expectorant Clearing- Clearing Breathing
1. Correcting adverse flow of Qi.[2,4]
2. Relieving cough and asthma.
3. Eliminate sputum. Remove phlegm.
4. Moistening intestines to loosen the bowels. INDICATIONS
1. Stagnation of phlegm and reversed flow of Qi shown as cough and asthma.
It is often used in conjunction with White mustard seed and Radish seed, known
as Decoction of Three Kinds of Seeds for the Aged- San zi yang qin tang.
2. Syndrome of excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower, manifested
as feeling of stuffiness and fullness in the chest and diaphragm region, cough
with dyspnea and shortness of breath due to abundant accumulation of phlegm and
fluid. It is often used with Magnolia bark and Tangerine peel = Decoction of Perilla
Seed for Descending Qi = Su zi jiang qi tang. Relieving cough and asthma. Hiccup.
With abundant sputum.
3. Dryness syndrome of the intestines shown as constipation. It is usually used
with Hemp seed and Bitter Apricot kernel. COMBINATIONS - Asthma due to Phlegm Heat: Diffuses
and redirects the Lung Qi downward, alleviates wheezing, transforms Phlegm, clears
Gingko Nut & Apricot Seed- Ding chuang wan- Gingko Nut & Apricot Seed
Combination -Phlegm Cold obstructing the Lung with Kidney unable
to grasp the Qi (Kidney Yang deficiency):Redirects
the Qi downwards, stops coughing and wheezing, warms the Lung and transforms PhlegmPerilla
Fruit Combination- Su zi jiang qi wan. - Spleen and
Lung Qi deficiency or Kidney deficiency:Tonifies
the Spleen, Lung and Kidney, aids the Kidney to grab the Qi, transforms Phlegm,
redirects the Lung Qi downward, secures the Lung and the Kidney, and alleviates
coughing and wheezingAstragalus
& Psorela- Xiao er gu ben ke chuan chong ji. - Exterior Wind Cold with retention of Phlegm and Fluids: Releases
exterior Wind-Cold, warms the Lung and Spleen to transform Phlegm and congested
fluids, directs rebellious Qi downwards to relieve cough and dyspnea Minor
Blue Dragon Combination- Xiao qing long wan. CONTRAINDICATIONS: It is contraindicated for loose stools due to Spleen
deficiency. PREPARATIONS: Decoction
Dry ripe fruit 5-10 g.[2,4] Used
unprepared or slightly stir baked. HABITAT:
Found growing in sunny and fertile locations or cultivated in gardens. DESCRIPTION: Annual herb. Stem: oblong, multi-branching, height about 1
m, purple or purplish-green. Leaves: opposite, broadly ovate or almost rounded,
apexes acuminate or aristate, bases rounded, margins coarsely serrate, both surfaces
bluish-purple, or green on the upper surface and purple on the underside, slightly
pubescent, long-petioles. Flowers: in summer, small purplish axillary or terminal
flowers appear to form racemose inflorescences. Nut: small, yellowish-brown. References
 Barefoot Doctor's Manual- 1977 Prepared
by the Revolutionary Health Committee of Hunan Province. Original Chinese manual-
Victor W. Sidel. Originally published by Dr Joseph Quin and the Fogarty International
centre, Bethdesda (1974). Madrona Publishers Seattle Washington ISBN 0-914842-52-8
  A Complete English Dictionary of Medicinal Terms in Chinese Acupuncture
and Herbalism 1981- Henry Lu Chinese Foundations of Natural Health- The Academy
of Oriental Heritage, Vancouver, Canada.
 Medicated Diet of Traditional Chinese Medicine- Chief Editor- Hou Jinglun.
Associate Editors- Zhao Xin, Li Weidong, Liu Jianxin, Geng Chun-e, Li Guohua,
Li Shaohua. Geijing. Science & Technology Press 1994. ISBN 7-5304-1735-5/R.
 The Chinese Materia Medica A practical English - Chinese Library of Traditional
Chinese Medicine Publishing House of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine. Director Hu Ximing ISBN 7-81010-111-X/R-110
 Translation notes from Gary Seiford and Hocu Huhn - NSW College of Natural
Therapies. Sydney Australia (1982).
 Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica- Dan Bensky and Andrew Gamble - Eastland
Press 1986 Seattle Washington ISBN 0-939616-15-7 Images
4.  5. food.lady8844
Inner Path can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the
use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally. Constituents
Leaf: 1-perillaldehyde, d-limonene, arginine, cumic acid, a-pinene,
b-pinene, alemicin, isoegomaketone, cynanin, dihydroperilla
alcohol, perilla alcohol. References  Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica - Dan Bensky and Andrew Gamble
- Eastland Press 1986 Seattle Washington ISBN 0-939616-15-7
Anti-allergic effect of Perilla frutescens and its active constituents.
Makino T, Furuta Y, Wakushima H, Fujii H, Saito K, Kano Y. Abstract
The leaves of Perilla frutescens Britton (Labiatae) are one of the most popular
garnishes in Japan, used as an antidote for fish and crab meat allergy or as a
food colorant. The present study was conducted to evaluate its anti-allergic effect
and to identify its active constituents using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis
(PCA)-reaction. 48 h after the cutaneous injection of anti-ovalbumin serum into
the ears of mice, ovalbumin and evansblue dye were intravenously injected. Perilla
was extracted with boiling water, and intraperitoneally injected 15 min before
ovalbumin-treatment. Thirty min after ovalbumin-treatment, the ears were removed
and the colorant in the ear was colorimetrically quantitated. Perilla extract
significantly suppressed the PCA-reaction, which was brought about by rosmarinic
acid with a partial contribution from some macromolecular compounds. The anti-allergic
titer of rosmarinic acid was more effective than tranilast, which is a modern
anti-allergic drug. Perilla and rosmarinic acid are potentially promising agents
for the treatment of allergic diseases.
PMID: 12672153 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1115 Phytother Res. 2003 Mar;17(3):240-3. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic
phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans.
Takano H, Osakabe N, Sanbongi C, Yanagisawa R, Inoue K, Yasuda A, Natsume M, Baba
S, Ichiishi E, Yoshikawa T. Abstract
Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical,
suppresses allergic immunoglobulin responses and inflammation caused by polymorphonuclear
leukocytes (PMNL) in mice. However, few placebo-controlled clinical trials have
examined the efficacy and safety of polyphenolic phytochemicals for treatment
of allergic inflammatory diseases in humans. The present study determined whether
oral supplementation with rosmarinic acid is an effective intervention for patients
with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR). In this 21-day, randomized,
double-blind, age-matched, placebo-controlled parallel group study, patients with
mild SAR were treated daily with extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic
acid (200 mg [n=10] or 50 mg [n=9]) or placebo (n=10). Patients recorded symptoms
daily in a diary. Profiles of infiltrating cells and concentrations of eotaxin,
IL-1beta, IL-8, and histamine were measured in nasal lavage fluid. Serum IgE concentrations
and routine blood tests were also examined. As compared with placebo supplementation,
supplementation with extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid
resulted in a significant increase in responder rates for itchy nose, watery eyes,
itchy eyes, and total symptoms (P<0.05). Active treatment significantly decreased
the numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid (P<0.05 vs.
placebo). Patients reported no adverse events, and no significant abnormalities
were detected in routine blood tests. In conclusion, extract of Perilla frutescens
enriched for rosmarinic acid can be an effective intervention for mild SAR at
least partly through inhibition of PMNL infiltration into the nostrils. Use of
this alternative treatment for SAR might reduce treatment costs for allergic diseases.
PMID: 14988517 Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Mar;229(3):247-54. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on
type-I allergy in mice.
Makino T, Furuta A, Fujii H, Nakagawa T, Wakushima H, Saito K, Kano Y. Abstract
Perilla frutescens Britton (perilla, Labiatae) is a medicinal herb prescribed
in Saiboku-to [Japanese letters: see text], which is a Kampo formula effective
for allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted
to evaluate the anti-allergic effect of orally administered perilla decoction
and to identify the active constituents using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis
(PCA)-reaction, which is one of the animal models for type I allergy. Perilla
decoction significantly suppressed PCA-reaction, and the inhibition % at the dose
of 500 mg/kg was 43%. The perilla decoction contains 5.3% of luteolin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide],
1.6% of apigenin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide], 0.49% of scutellarin,
and 2.5% of rosmarinic acid (weight of compound/dried weight of perilla decoction
%), respectively. When these constituents were orally administered to mice at
the dose equivalent to 500 mg/kg of perilla decoction, rosmarinic acid and apigenin
7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide] significantly suppressed PCA-reaction,
and their inhibition % was 41% (p<0.01) and 32% (p<0.05), respectively.
Since the inhibition % or perilla decoction and rosmarinic acid were nearly equal,
the anti-allergic effect of perilla decoction depends primarily on rosmarinic
acid. The standard Saiboku-to decoction contained 0.013% of rosmarinic acid, which
was too low to exhibit anti-allergic activity in a daily dose of Saiboku-to in
adults, suggesting that perilla would be prescribed in Saiboku-to to exhibit other
pharmacological effects than its anti-allergic activity, such as a sedative.
PMID: 11642335 Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Oct;24(10):1206-9. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated
Huang BP, Lin CH, Chen YC, Kao SH. Abstract
Perilla leaves are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine and in Japanese herbal
agents used to treat respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the
anti‑inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of Perilla frutescens
leaf extract (PLE). Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used as a model. Cell
viability and morphological changes were studied by the MTT assay and microscopy.
mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory mediators was assessed by both semi‑quantitative
reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and quantitative (q)
RT‑PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were analyzed
by the Griess test and sandwich enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.
The activation of kinase cascades was studied by immunoblotting. Our findings
showed that PLE slightly affects cell viability, but alleviates LPS‑induced activation
of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLE significantly reduced the LPS‑induced mRNA
expression of the interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cyclooxygenase‑2
(COX‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), genes in a dose‑dependent
manner. In addition, PLE reduced NO production and PGE2 secretion induced by LPS.
PLE also inhibited activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), increased
the cytosolic IκBα level, and reduced the level of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. Taken
together, these findings indicate that PLE significantly decreases the mRNA expression
and protein production of pro‑inflammatory mediators, via the inhibition of extracellular‑signal‑regulated
kinase (ERK)1/2, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK), p38, as well as NF‑κB signaling
in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS.
PMID: 24898576 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2298 Mol Med Rep. 2014 Aug;10(2):1077-83.
doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2298. Epub 2014 Jun 5.