Perilla frutescens.  Perilla   Family: Labiatae  


 Zǐ sū yè   Dry leaf with tender branch               
Nature: Warm      FLAVOR: Pungent, acrid, aromatic   CHANNEL: Lung, Spleen
FUNCTIONS
GROUP: Exterior Clearing- Warming
1. Clears the exterior and disperses Cold.[6] Diaphoretic, clearing Heat from the body.[5] Dispels Cold.[1]
2. Promotes the movement of Qi and expands the chest.[6] Open inhibited Lung Energy to relieve cough. Corrects energy balance.[1] Relieves asthma.[1] Disperse mucus.[5] Cough.[5]
3. Harmonize middle Jiao. Promote flow of Qi. Harmonise Stomach. Strenghens gastric secretions, regulate Stomach energy.[5]
4. Diuretic.[5]
5. Relieve fish and crab poisoning.
6. Quiets restless fetus,[1] detoxifies.[1]
INDICATIONS
1. Wind cold. Cough of Wind Cold type with thin sputum and feeling of oppression in the chest; stuffy nose and sneezing due to Wind Cold. As a preventive for epidemic influenza, colds, and malaria.[1] Common cold, cough. Congestion in chest.[5]
2. Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite and morning sickness due to stagnation of Spleen/Stomach energy.[6]  Vomiting, abdominal distention and flatulence.[1] Abdominal swelling, swelling of chest, nausea, vomiting. Vomiting due to attack of external Wind Cold.[5]
3. Seafood- Fish and crab poisoning.[1,6] Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea after intake of fish and crab. Leaves cooked with fish and crab may prevent the poisoning or allergy.
4. Restless fetus.[1,6]
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Exterior deficiency with pronounced sweating, and for patterns of Damp Heat.[6]
PATENT COMBINATIONS
- Emotional disorders with retention of Phlegm: Disperses stagnant Qi, moves the Qi and dissipates lumps, direction rebellious Qi downwards, transforms Phlegm Pinellia & Magnolia- Ban xia hou pi tang
- Exterior Wind Cold or Wind Cold Dampness with stagnation of Dampness, or food stagnation in the middle Heater: Releases Exterior Wind-Cold, activates the Spleen to transform Dampness and Phlegm, regulates the Qi, harmonizes the Middle Jiao Agastache Combination- Huo xiang zheng qi wan.  
- Exterior Wind Cold in patients with Lung and Spleen Qi deficiency with Phlegm Damp retention: Releases exterior Wind Cold, disperses stagnant Qi and harmonises the Middle Jiao, transforms Phlegm, tonifies Qi Ginseng & Perilla- Shen su yin.
- Febrile illness due to exterior Wind Heat or Heat and Toxicity: Clear Heat and resolves Toxicity, releases exterior Wind-Heat Isatis & Forsythia- Xiao er tui re chong ji.             
PREPARATIONS: Decoction. Dry leaf or with tender branch  4-10 g.[2,3] 6-9 g.[5] 3-9 g.[6] Whole plant 9-15 g.[1] Should not be cooked for prolonged periods.[6] Good quality is large, purple, and fragrant.[6]
    

Zǐ sū zǐ   Perilla seed/fruit- It is harvested in autumn, dried in sunlight.   
   FLAVOR: Pungent. CHANNEL: Lung, Large Intestine
FUNCTIONS
GROUP: Antitussive and Expectorant Clearing- Clearing Breathing
1. Correcting adverse flow of Qi.[2,4]
2. Relieving cough and asthma.
3. Eliminate sputum. Remove phlegm.
4. Moistening intestines to loosen the bowels.
INDICATIONS
1. Stagnation of phlegm and reversed flow of Qi shown as cough and asthma. It is often used in conjunction with White mustard seed and Radish seed, known as Decoction of Three Kinds of  Seeds for the Aged- San zi yang qin tang.
2. Syndrome of excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower, manifested as feeling of stuffiness and fullness in the chest and diaphragm region, cough with dyspnea and shortness of breath due to abundant accumulation of phlegm and fluid. It is often used with Magnolia bark and Tangerine peel = Decoction of Perilla Seed for Descending Qi = Su zi jiang qi tang. Relieving cough and asthma. Hiccup. With abundant sputum.
3. Dryness syndrome of the intestines shown as constipation. It is usually used with Hemp seed and Bitter Apricot kernel.
COMBINATIONS
- Asthma due to Phlegm Heat: Diffuses and redirects the Lung Qi downward, alleviates wheezing, transforms Phlegm, clears Heat Gingko Nut & Apricot Seed- Ding chuang wan- Gingko Nut & Apricot Seed Combination
- Phlegm Cold obstructing the Lung with Kidney unable to grasp the Qi (Kidney Yang deficiency): Redirects the Qi downwards, stops coughing and wheezing, warms the Lung and transforms Phlegm Perilla Fruit Combination- Su zi jiang qi wan.
- Spleen and Lung Qi deficiency or Kidney deficiency:
Tonifies the Spleen, Lung and Kidney, aids the Kidney to grab the Qi, transforms Phlegm, redirects the Lung Qi downward, secures the Lung and the Kidney, and alleviates coughing and wheezing Astragalus & Psorela- Xiao er gu ben ke chuan chong ji.
- Exterior Wind Cold with retention of Phlegm and Fluids: Releases exterior Wind-Cold, warms the Lung and Spleen to transform Phlegm and congested fluids, directs rebellious Qi downwards to relieve cough and dyspnea Minor Blue Dragon Combination- Xiao qing long wan
            

CONTRAINDICATIONS: It is contraindicated for loose stools due to Spleen deficiency.[4]
PREPARATIONS: Decoction  Dry ripe fruit 5-10 g.[2,4] Used unprepared or slightly stir baked.[4]

HABITAT: Found growing  in sunny and fertile locations or cultivated in gardens.
DESCRIPTION: Annual herb. Stem: oblong, multi-branching, height about 1 m, purple or purplish-green. Leaves: opposite, broadly ovate or almost rounded, apexes acuminate or aristate, bases rounded, margins coarsely serrate, both surfaces bluish-purple, or green on the upper surface and purple on the underside, slightly pubescent, long-petioles. Flowers: in summer, small purplish axillary or terminal flowers appear to form racemose inflorescences. Nut: small, yellowish-brown.
References
Inner Path can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Constituents

Research

Anti-allergic effect of Perilla frutescens and its active constituents.
Makino T, Furuta Y, Wakushima H, Fujii H, Saito K, Kano Y.
Abstract
The leaves of Perilla frutescens Britton (Labiatae) are one of the most popular garnishes in Japan, used as an antidote for fish and crab meat allergy or as a food colorant. The present study was conducted to evaluate its anti-allergic effect and to identify its active constituents using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-reaction. 48 h after the cutaneous injection of anti-ovalbumin serum into the ears of mice, ovalbumin and evansblue dye were intravenously injected. Perilla was extracted with boiling water, and intraperitoneally injected 15 min before ovalbumin-treatment. Thirty min after ovalbumin-treatment, the ears were removed and the colorant in the ear was colorimetrically quantitated. Perilla extract significantly suppressed the PCA-reaction, which was brought about by rosmarinic acid with a partial contribution from some macromolecular compounds. The anti-allergic titer of rosmarinic acid was more effective than tranilast, which is a modern anti-allergic drug. Perilla and rosmarinic acid are potentially promising agents for the treatment of allergic diseases.
PMID: 12672153 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1115 Phytother Res. 2003 Mar;17(3):240-3. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans.
Takano H, Osakabe N, Sanbongi C, Yanagisawa R, Inoue K, Yasuda A, Natsume M, Baba S, Ichiishi E, Yoshikawa T.
Abstract
Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, suppresses allergic immunoglobulin responses and inflammation caused by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in mice. However, few placebo-controlled clinical trials have examined the efficacy and safety of polyphenolic phytochemicals for treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases in humans. The present study determined whether oral supplementation with rosmarinic acid is an effective intervention for patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR). In this 21-day, randomized, double-blind, age-matched, placebo-controlled parallel group study, patients with mild SAR were treated daily with extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid (200 mg [n=10] or 50 mg [n=9]) or placebo (n=10). Patients recorded symptoms daily in a diary. Profiles of infiltrating cells and concentrations of eotaxin, IL-1beta, IL-8, and histamine were measured in nasal lavage fluid. Serum IgE concentrations and routine blood tests were also examined. As compared with placebo supplementation, supplementation with extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid resulted in a significant increase in responder rates for itchy nose, watery eyes, itchy eyes, and total symptoms (P<0.05). Active treatment significantly decreased the numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid (P<0.05 vs. placebo). Patients reported no adverse events, and no significant abnormalities were detected in routine blood tests. In conclusion, extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid can be an effective intervention for mild SAR at least partly through inhibition of PMNL infiltration into the nostrils. Use of this alternative treatment for SAR might reduce treatment costs for allergic diseases.
PMID: 14988517  Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Mar;229(3):247-54. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on type-I allergy in mice.
Makino T, Furuta A, Fujii H, Nakagawa T, Wakushima H, Saito K, Kano Y.
Abstract
Perilla frutescens Britton (perilla, Labiatae) is a medicinal herb prescribed in Saiboku-to [Japanese letters: see text], which is a Kampo formula effective for allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-allergic effect of orally administered perilla decoction and to identify the active constituents using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-reaction, which is one of the animal models for type I allergy. Perilla decoction significantly suppressed PCA-reaction, and the inhibition % at the dose of 500 mg/kg was 43%. The perilla decoction contains 5.3% of luteolin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide], 1.6% of apigenin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide], 0.49% of scutellarin, and 2.5% of rosmarinic acid (weight of compound/dried weight of perilla decoction %), respectively. When these constituents were orally administered to mice at the dose equivalent to 500 mg/kg of perilla decoction, rosmarinic acid and apigenin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide] significantly suppressed PCA-reaction, and their inhibition % was 41% (p<0.01) and 32% (p<0.05), respectively. Since the inhibition % or perilla decoction and rosmarinic acid were nearly equal, the anti-allergic effect of perilla decoction depends primarily on rosmarinic acid. The standard Saiboku-to decoction contained 0.013% of rosmarinic acid, which was too low to exhibit anti-allergic activity in a daily dose of Saiboku-to in adults, suggesting that perilla would be prescribed in Saiboku-to to exhibit other pharmacological effects than its anti-allergic activity, such as a sedative.
PMID: 11642335  Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Oct;24(10):1206-9. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
Huang BP, Lin CH, Chen YC, Kao SH.
Abstract
Perilla leaves are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine and in Japanese herbal agents used to treat respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PLE). Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used as a model. Cell viability and morphological changes were studied by the MTT assay and microscopy. mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory mediators was assessed by both semi‑quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and quantitative (q) RT‑PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were analyzed by the Griess test and sandwich enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The activation of kinase cascades was studied by immunoblotting. Our findings showed that PLE slightly affects cell viability, but alleviates LPS‑induced activation of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLE significantly reduced the LPS‑induced mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), genes in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, PLE reduced NO production and PGE2 secretion induced by LPS. PLE also inhibited activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), increased the cytosolic IκBα level, and reduced the level of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. Taken together, these findings indicate that PLE significantly decreases the mRNA expression and protein production of pro‑inflammatory mediators, via the inhibition of extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK), p38, as well as NF‑κB signaling in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS.
PMID: 24898576 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2298  Mol Med Rep. 2014 Aug;10(2):1077-83. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2298. Epub 2014 Jun 5. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov