Notopterygium incisum.  Qiāng huó  Notopterygium  Family: Umbelliferae     
Notopterygium is a type of plant native to east Asia, a relative of the Angelica species. The name Qiang huo refers to Qiang Zhong, an area in China where the plant grows naturally.
Nature- warm     FLAVOR: Pungent, bitter, acrid   CHANNEL: Bladder, Liver, Kidney.
FUNCTIONS
GROUP: Exterior Clearing- Warming
1. Clearing the exterior and dispersing Cold:[2] chills, fever, headache, and body aches and pains.[2]
2. Remove Dampness, relieve pain. Most commonly used when accompanied by Dampness with joint pain, a generaly feeling of heaviness, sleepiness, or when there is pain in the occipital region.[2] Unblocks painful obstruction and alleviates pain: for Wind Cold Damp painful obstruction, especially in the arms and back.[2]
3. Dispersing Cold.
4. Guides Qi to the greater Yang channel and governing vessel: to direct other herbs in a prescription to the areas served by these two channels.[2]
ACTIONS
INDICATIONS
1. Exopathogenic Wind Cold:[4] Common cold, headache, pain in body, pain in limbs.[1,4] Especially hot and cold pains in bones.[4]
2. Wind Cold Damp arthralgia, with pains in the limbs and joints, especially pains in the upper part of the body which doesn't move.[4] Wind Damp rheumatism, arthritis, Bi syndrome.[4]
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Because this herb has lifting and dispersing actions and is Warm and Drying in nature, it is liable to cause impairment to both Yin and Blood, and therefore, Yin and Blood Deficiency conditions,[2] and for affection by Exopathogens with dryness of the throat, it should be avoided.[1,3] When used incorrectly it will generate more Heat, damaging the Jin and Blood and increasing the severity of pain.[4] Overdosage may cause nausea and vomiting.[2]
COMPARISONS
Notopterygium is more effective for superficial Wind Damp or problems with the upper extremities.
Angelica pubescens is better for deep Wind Damp or lower extremity disorders.
PATENT COMBINATIONS
PREPARATIONS: Dried rhizome and root 3-9 g.[1,4] 6-15 g.[2] Good quality is coarse and aromatic with an irregular surface and has a dense cross section with many red spots.



ORIGIN: Notopterygium incisum grows naturally in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Xizang, China. Growing at a range of 1600 to 5000 meters above sea level.
References
Inner Path can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Constituents

Research

Studies on chemical constituents in roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisum. [Article in Chinese]
Zhang P, Yang XW.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To study the chemical constituents in the roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisum.
METHOD:
The chemical constituents were isolated by various column chromatographic methods and structurally elucidated by NMR and MS evidences.
RESULT:
Twenty-four compounds were obtained and identified as isocalamenediol (1), pregnenolone (2), beta-sitosterol (3), bergapten (4), bergaptol (5), cnidilin (6), isoimperatorin (7), bergamottin (8), demethylfuropinnarin (9), nodakenetin (10), 7'-O-methylnotoptol (11), notopterol (12), notoptol (13), pabulenol (14), phenethylferulate (15), p-hydroxyphenethyl anisate (16), trans-ferulic acid (17), nodakenin (18), sucrose (19), 2-methoxy-4-(3-methoxy-1-propenyl)-phenol (20), 3, 4, 5 trimethoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (21), p-methoxycinnamic acid (22), 4-acetoxy-3-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (23), and p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acid (24).
CONCLUSION:
Compounds 1, 14, 20-24 were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of N. incisum for the first time. Compounds 1 and 14 are sesquiterpenoid and coumarin, respectively, and 20-24 were phenylpropanoid compounds.
PMID: 19294850  Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Dec;33(24):2918-21. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum--new selective partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.
Atanasov AG, Blunder M, Fakhrudin N, Liu X, Noha SM, Malainer C, Kramer MP, Cocic A, Kunert O, Schinkovitz A, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Dirsch VM, Bauer R.
Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and therefore an important pharmacological target to combat metabolic diseases. Since the currently used full PPARγ agonists display serious side effects, identification of novel ligands, particularly partial agonists, is highly relevant. Searching for new active compounds, we investigated extracts of the underground parts of Notopterygium incisum, a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, and observed significant PPARγ activation using a PPARγ-driven luciferase reporter model. Activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of six polyacetylenes, which displayed properties of selective partial PPARγ agonists in the luciferase reporter model. Since PPARγ activation by this class of compounds has so far not been reported, we have chosen the prototypical polyacetylene falcarindiol for further investigation. The effect of falcarindiol (10 µM) in the luciferase reporter model was blocked upon co-treatment with the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 (1 µM). Falcarindiol bound to the purified human PPARγ receptor with a Ki of 3.07 µM. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode within the ligand binding site, where hydrogen bonds to Cys285 and Glu295 are predicted to be formed in addition to extensive hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, falcarindiol further induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and enhanced the insulin-induced glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes confirming effectiveness in cell models with endogenous PPARγ expression. In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPARγ agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements.
PMID: 23630612 PMCID: PMC3632601 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061755  PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e61755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061755. Print 2013. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of linear furocoumarins from Notopterygium incisum on cancer cell lines.
Wu SB, Pang F, Wen Y, Zhang HF, Zhao Z, Hu JF.
Abstract
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the antiproliferative chloroform extract of the traditional Chinese medicine Qiang-Huo (Notopterygium incisum) led to the isolation of nine linear furocoumarins (1- 9). All the isolates were tested against two human cancer cell lines (HepG-2 and MCF-7) and a rat cancer cell line (C6) using the MTT assay method. Among them, notopol (1), notopterol (2), 5-[(2 E,5 Z)-7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienoxy]psoralene (3), and 5-[(2,5)-epoxy-3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenoxy]psoralene (4) showed significant antiproliferative activity against the HepG-2 and C6 cancer cell lines, with IC(50) values of 7.7-24.8 microg/mL (5-FU: ca. 5 microg/mL). Compounds 1- 3 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 cancer cell line, with IC(50) values of 39.4-61.3 microg/mL (5-FU: 17.3 microg/mL). The cell cycle-specific inhibition and apoptosis induced by compounds 1 and 2 were determined using flow cytometry. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) is briefly discussed herein. It was found that the presence of a free hydroxy at the lipophilic side chain linked to C-5 of the linear furocoumarins was essential for their in vitro antiproliferative activity.
Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
PMID: 19653148 DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1185971  Planta Med. 2010 Jan;76(1):82-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185971. Epub 2009 Aug 3. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

5-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitory active constituents from Qianghuo (Notopterygium incisum).
Zschocke S, Lehner M, Bauer R.
Abstract
The n-hexane extract of Qianghuo (underground parts of Notopterygium incisum Ting x H.T. Chang, Umbelliferae) showed inhibitory activity in vitro in 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase (COS) assays. Two major constituents, phenethyl ferulate and falcarindiol, and one minor compound (-)-bornyl ferulate, were identified as the main active principles. The correlation between the content of active constituents and the inhibitory activity of the extracts was examined with seven commercial drug samples from different sources. It was obvious that the content of phenethyl ferulate was mainly responsible for the COX inhibitory activity of the extracts and falcarindiol for 5-LO inhibitory activity. Since the main active constituents phenethyl ferulate and falcarindiol can easily be quantified by HPLC, this is a suitable method for standardization and characterization of the drug.
PMID: 9265192 DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-957653  Planta Med. 1997 Jun;63(3):203-6. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov